The opposite effect, that of hyponasality, occurs due to nasal or naso-
pharyngeal obstruction, e.g. from nasal polypi, a naso-antral polypus, a
nasopharyngeal tumour or very large adenoids.
Fig. 47. Examination of the oropharynx. I, Palatine tonsil; 2, Palatoglossal fold; 3, Uvula; 4, Palato-
Fig. 48. Palatograph taken with child saying ^ee1 to show immobile palate incapable of closing naso-
pharynx. Adenoids had been removed twice for poor speech, converting hyporhinophonia to hyper-
rhinophonia. Plastic surgery may now be required.
Attention is next turned to the tonsils. In the adult they may be concealed to
a greater or lesser degree behind the palatoglossal arch (anterior pillar) in
which event they are described as submerged or buried. Tonsils which project
into the lumen of the pharynx are called pedunculated. The size of the tonsils is